Specialist training: advanced training in urology (2023)

As a medical specialty, urology deals with the urinary and urinary organs (kidneys, bladder, ureter and urethra), as well as diseases of the male genital organs (testicles, vas deferens, penis, prostate).

The word comes from the ancient Greek "ouron" for urine, urine. Urology developed as an independent subject at the end of the 19th century. Today it has long been established as an independent discipline. Our article is about the specialist training in urology in Austria, as well as the career and earning opportunities for urologists.

Specialist in urology - activities and area of ​​responsibility

Urologists are often considered "men's doctors" and the equivalent of gynecologists for women. But that is only partly true. Admittedly, andrology - the medicine of the specific problems of men - belongs to denurological responsibilities. However, the range of treatments in urology is much broader. Urologists mainly deal with diseases, functional disorders, malformations and injuries to the urinary organs - in both sexes. There are many clinical pictures here, for example urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence, inflammation of the urethra, urinary and kidney stones or kidney failure. Typical "men's diseases" are erectile dysfunction, prostate inflammation or cancer, the "male menopause" etc..

There are a number of procedures for examining and diagnosing urological diseases: urography - the X-ray examination of the urinary organs -, ultrasound examinations, cystoscopy, prostate biopsy, etc. Treatments are conservative or surgical, depending on the clinical picture and cause. The urologist carries out minor interventions himself, larger operations are often performed by surgeons. There are overlaps with nephrologists who deal specifically with kidney problems. However, kidney problems are also a urological responsibility.

Specialist in urology – an overview of further training

Like all specialist training in Austria, training in urology builds on general medical training. It is designed as a continuing education course. The legal basis is the Austrian oneMedical training regulations 2015 (ÄAO 2015). There, training to become a specialist in urology is one of 31 possible specialist training courses (special medical subjects).


The aim of the further training is to acquire the professional competence and qualifications for self-responsible and independent professional practice as a specialist in urology - whether as a salaried employee or in your own practice.

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duration and structure

The further training in the special subject urology lasts a total of 72 months and is divided into three sections:

  • 9 months of basic training, which is the same for all specialist training;
  • 36 months special subject basic training;
  • 27 months of special subject training.

A total of seven modules are offered in the special subject focus training, six purely technical modules and one scientific module. Three modules must be selected from this.


Basic training is basic training that all prospective medical specialists must go through. It serves to acquire basic clinical skills in surgical and conservative fields. The general knowledge and skills that a hospital doctor needs to have are imparted.

Specialty basic training

The special basic training covers the entire canon of neurological subjects. It is about imparting knowledge, experience and skills. The training includes, among other things, the anatomy of the urogenital tract, possible clinical pictures in this area, forms of urological examination, diagnostics and treatment, surgical interventions, pain therapy and palliative medicine. General topics such as patient advice and support are also dealt with. The following skills and abilities are taught:

  • Etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of urological diseases
  • Topographic and functional anatomy of the urogenital tract
  • Physiology, pathology and embryonic development of the urogenital tract
  • Imaging and nuclear medicine procedures
  • Dermatology of the external genitalia
  • Basics of Neurology
  • Genetic
  • Proctology
  • kidney transplant
  • Environmental and work-related risks and diseases
  • Psychosomatic medicine
  • pain therapy
  • Caring for people with special needs
  • geriatrics
  • palliative medicine
  • Knowledge of health advice, prevention, preventive medicine
  • Relevant legal regulations for the exercise of the medical profession, in particular with regard to the social, welfare and health care system, including the corresponding institutional knowledge of the Austrian health care system and the social security system
  • Basics of documentation and medical liability
  • Basics of multidisciplinary coordination and cooperation, especially with other health professions and opportunities for rehabilitation
  • Health economic effects of medical action
  • ethics of medical practice
  • Measures for patient safety
  • Clinical, conservative, operational, technical diagnostics and therapy of diseases belonging to the specialty including reproductive medicine and urological manifestations and complications of diseases of neighboring organs
  • Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy of the urinary tract
  • urinary diversion
  • Urological history and status as well as clinical examination
  • Specialist sonography
  • Specialist imaging-assisted interventional procedures of the urogenital tract
  • Andrology and sexual dysfunctions
  • Care of uro-oncological patients and their relatives
  • Diagnosis and therapy of urological emergencies
  • Information and communication with patients and relatives about the preparation, indication, implementation and risks of examinations and treatments
  • Subject-specific quality assurance and documentation
  • Specialist pain therapy
  • Radiation protection for patients and staff in accordance with the applicable legal provisions

Special subject training

The following modules are offered in the special subject training:

Module 1: Pediatric Urology

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  • Etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of pediatric urological diseases
  • Topographic and functional anatomy of the child's genitourinary tract
  • Physiology, pathology and embryonic development of the child's urogenital tract
  • Specialist imaging and nuclear medicine procedures in children
  • Basics of pediatrics
  • Diagnosis and therapy of urological diseases in children and adolescents
  • Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy of the urinary tract in children
  • Urological history and status and clinical examination of children
  • Specialist sonography
  • Guidance and interpretation of voiding and enuresis records
  • Specialist imaging-assisted, interventional interventions in the child's urogenital tract
  • Diagnosis and treatment of urological emergencies in children
  • Information and communication with child patients and their legal guardians about the preparation, indication, implementation and risks of examinations and treatments and their alternatives
  • Specialist pain therapy
  • Specialist antibiotic therapy

Module 2: Bladder dysfunction and urodynamics

  • Anatomy and physiology of the male and female pelvis
  • Neural control of continence and micturition at the cerebral, spinal and peripheral levels
  • Etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnostics, differential diagnostics and treatment options
  • Symptoms of bladder emptying disorders:
  • memory symptoms
  • voiding symptoms
  • Symptoms after voiding
  • Symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction
  • Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
  • Guidance and interpretation of the voiding protocol
  • Clinical and technical diagnostics, conservative and surgical therapy for bladder dysfunction
  • Subject-specific quality assurance and documentation

Module 3: Andrology and Sexual Dysfunctions

  • Anatomy and physiology of male sexual function including fertility
  • Endocrinology of male development, sexual function and fertility
  • Etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnostics, differential diagnostics, therapy options (and indication) of andrological diseases:
  • libido disorders
  • arousal disorders
  • erectile dysfunction
  • ejaculation disorders
  • orgasmic disorders
  • male infertility
  • hormonal imbalances
  • Tissue Safety Act (GSG) – scope and general conditions
  • Targeted history of andrological symptoms
  • Clinical and technical diagnostics, conservative and operative therapy of andrological diseases
  • Counseling and therapy of andrologically relevant genetic diseases

Module 4: Urological-Oncological Surgery

  • Etiology, risk factors and prevention of malignancies of the adrenal gland, kidney, retroperitoneum, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, prostate, penis and testis
  • Early detection, diagnosis and staging of malignancies of the adrenal gland, kidney, retroperitoneum, ureter, bladder, urethra, prostate, penis and testicles
  • cancer therapy
  • Treatment risks, prognosis and aftercare of malignant diseases of the adrenal gland, kidney, retroperitoneum, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, prostate, penis, testicles and metastases
  • Advantages and disadvantages as well as specific aspects of uro-oncological therapies on the adrenal glands, kidneys, retroperitoneum, ureter, bladder, urethra, prostate, penis, testicles and metastases in a comparison of different access routes and techniques
  • Educating and guiding patients with malignant diseases of the adrenal glands, kidneys, retroperitoneum, ureters, bladder, urethra, prostate, penis and testicles
  • Management of uro-oncological cases in tumor boards
  • Uro-oncological palliative medicine

Module 5: Laparoscopy and minimally invasive therapy

  • Patient positioning for transperitoneal and retroperitoneal procedures as well as for procedures in the small pelvis (kidney, prostate, bladder)
  • Approaches and trocar positioning for transperitoneal, retroperitoneal and pelvic minor procedures
  • Different port systems and laparoscopic instruments/equipment
  • Pneumoperitoneum
  • Different laparoscopy techniques and access routes
  • patient positioning
  • Different access techniques and access routes
  • camera work
  • Intra- and extracorporeal knot technique

Module 6: Urogeriatrics

  • Special etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnostics, differential diagnostics of urological diseases in geriatric people
  • Prevalence and risk factors of urological diseases in geriatric people
  • Basics of multidisciplinary coordination and cooperation, in particular orientation on social facilities, institutions and options for intramural and extramural care of geriatric urological patients
  • Comorbidity indices for the evaluation of geriatric urological patients
  • Polypharmacy, pharmacological interactions with special consideration of geriatric patients
  • Clinical and technical diagnostics, conservative and operative therapy of urological diseases in geriatric people
  • Indication of various urinary diversion in geriatric patients
  • Holistic advice and care for uro-geriatric patients and their relatives, including training relatives to take on medical activities
  • Indication of uro-oncological therapies in geriatric patients, taking into account comorbidities
  • Information and communication with patients and relatives about the preparation, indication, implementation and risks of examinations and treatments
  • Urogeriatric pain therapy and palliative medicine
  • Pharmacological therapy with special consideration of interactions in geriatric patients (structured drug management)

Scientific module

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Like the basic training, the scientific module is designed in the same way for all specialist training courses. It is geared towards functions in research and teaching. Among other things, it is about scientific work, scientific ethics and theory, study design, statistical evaluation methods, etc.

Specialist examinationUrology

The specialist examination forms the conclusion of further urological training. It is organized as a computer-based examination under the overall responsibility of the Austrian Medical Association via the relevant state medical associations. Examination locations are Vienna, Linz, Innsbruck and Graz. 150 multiple-choice questions have to be answered on the computer within 2 hours. They cover the entire spectrum of urological knowledge. There are no grades. The exam can only be “passed” or “failed”.

The specialist examination is identical to the first (= written) part of the EBU examination. EBU stands for the European Board of Urology. This official body defines training standards for urologists at European level. Even if the test content is the same, the evaluations according to AÄO 2015 and EBU differ. When evaluating the multiple-choice answers, only those questions that conform to the ÄAO 2015 are used as a basis for the Austrian specialist examination. If you successfully pass both evaluation schemes, you acquire both the Austrian examination certificate and the EBU certificate (first part).

Specialist in urology – salary

According to medical statistics from the Austrian Medical Association, around 630 urologists work in Austria. In terms of the number of doctors, urology is therefore one of the "smaller" medical disciplines. That is not enough to be able to speak of a “job market”. Therefore, "universal" salary information for urologists is difficult. The salary depends largely on the circumstances in the specific case (employer, location, provider, function).

"Interdisciplinary" statistics on specialist salaries in Austria can serve as a guide. According to this, an employed specialist doctor earns an average of almost 60,000 euros p.a.. There are regional differences. As an employed specialist, you earn the most in Vienna (on average 66,000 euros p.a.), but the cost of living is also one of the highest here. There are significant upward and downward deviations from these average values. Factors such as professional experience, age and position play an important role. Additional earnings from weekend and holiday work and other supplements are also not taken into account.

As a urologist with your own practice, your chances of earning are often much better. An income well above 100,000 euros p.a. is not utopian. However, self-employment as a specialist also means an economic risk. At the beginning there are often considerable investments - for example for taking over the practice - which first have to be amortized.

(Video) Urological courses

Jobs as a urologist

For urologists there is the possibility of employment, usually in a hospital. A number of Austrian hospitals have departments for urology and andrology. Quite a few hospitals also have urological outpatient departments. The Medical University of Vienna has its own university clinic for urology.

Another option is to work as a resident doctor with your own practice. Urological practices are primarily found in large and medium-sized cities. From about 10,000 inhabitants there is enough "potential" for a urological practice. In addition to working as a single doctor, there is also the option of working in a group practice - together with other urologists, possibly with different focuses, or with other specialists.

practicallyArzt is the largest job exchange for doctors in Austria. In the job search, numerous job offers in urology for assistant physicians, specialists, senior physicians and chief physicians are listed every day.

Straight to the urology jobs

Doctor vacancies urology

Assistant doctor vacancies in urology

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Specialist training and specialist directions

Specialist training overview – all disciplines

Medical specialties – overview


What does a urology exam consist of? ›

The urologist may want to check blood counts, kidney function, or test PSA (prostate-specific antigen) or testosterone levels. Your urologist may order imaging studies. This can include sonography of the kidneys, the bladder, and/or the prostate; or an imaging scan to visualize specific organs.

What are the required skills for a urologist? ›

Urologist Requirements:

The ability to keep updated on the latest medical technologies. The flexibility to work irregular hours and remain on emergency call. Strong decision-making, problem-solving, and analytical skills. Good communication and interpersonal skills.

What to expect at a female urology exam? ›

An initial exam usually includes a vaginal exam with a speculum. Additional diagnostic testing may include imaging studies and cystoscopy. Conservative (non-surgical) therapy is rarely effective; most vaginal fistulas require surgery to close the opening.

Why do you want to work in urology? ›

“One of the most rewarding things about the practice of urology is the privilege of taking care of patients and making a difference in their quality of life,” Kobashi says. “In female pelvic medicine and pelvic floor reconstruction, I get to know such great people. The patient interaction has been very rewarding.”

How should I prepare for my urology exam? ›

5 Steps to Prepare for Your Urology Appointment
  1. Contact your insurance company and primary care provider. ...
  2. Make a list of any current medications. ...
  3. Write out detailed notes about your symptoms. ...
  4. Gather everything you need to bring. ...
  5. Check-in and complete the necessary paperwork. ...
  6. You'll be asked to provide a urine sample.
Jun 7, 2021

Is it hard to get into urology? ›

Students apply and interview for residency training in their chosen field during their fourth year of medical school. Urology residencies are extremely competitive. Med students normally match into a residency via a process called The Match.

Is a urologist a stressful job? ›

Urologists have the most stressful job in the U.S. That's according to a new analysis from the Department of Labor's Occupational Information Network, known as known as O*NET, which analyzed 873 of the most stressful occupations.

Are urologists in high demand? ›

According to one estimate, the need for urologists is likely to grow 45 percent by 2035. In fact, the American Urological Association (AUA) considers this workforce shortage to be a federal advocacy priority that, without interventions, will have an impact on patient outcomes in the future.

Is being a urologist stressful? ›

New research from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), a part of the Department of Labor, ranks urologist as the most stressful occupation in the United States.

What are red flags in urology? ›

Red Flag/Urgently refer patients if:

Chronic retention which may present as night time enuresis / over flow incontinence and/ or painless palpable bladder needs renal function checking and refer urgently.

Can a female urologist see a male? ›

The fact that there are few female urologists might not seem shocking – urologists spend a lot of time looking at penises. But they also treat a wide variety of urinary tract and kidney health problems in both men and women. "It's not all male genitalia!" says Dr.

Do male urologists see female patients? ›

However, urologists commonly treat people of both genders. They deal with problems of the urinary tract, which is a bodily system that includes muscles, organs, and tubes as well as the reproductive system for both men and women. A urogynecologist is a separate specialty.

What is the future job outlook for urologists? ›

The overall job outlook for Urologist careers has been negative since 2019. Vacancies for this career have decreased by 3.91 percent nationwide in that time, with an average decline of 3.91 percent per year. Demand for Urologists is expected to go up, with an expected 72,500 new jobs filled by 2029.

What career is related to urinary system? ›

The responsibilities of a urologist include: Diagnosing and treating diseases of the urinary system, which includes the bladder, kidneys, ureters, and the urethra. Treating conditions involving reproductive and adrenal glands.

What is the 20 second bladder rule urologists want you to follow? ›

In general, it should take about 20 seconds to pee. You can set a timer, or simply by counting “one-Mississippi, two-Mississippi,” Dr. Miller says. If you're significantly over or under 20 seconds, you're likely holding your pee too long or going too often.

What is a Step 1 score for urology? ›

Recent NRMP data suggest that a Step I score for Urology candidates should be 240 or higher. Step II scores should be 245-250 or higher. Successful Urology-matched students typically rank in the top 25% of their class for those schools that provide rankings.

What happens if you fail urology boards? ›

An applicant will have no more than three attempts to pass the Qualifying (Part 1) Examination and no more than three attempts to pass the Certifying (Part 2) Examination. If a candidate fails the Qualifying Exam for the third time the Board may consider individual requests to re-enter the process.

What is the highest degree for urologist? ›

This course can opt for aspiring students after they have completed their M.B.B.S. and have gained some job experience. Master of Surgery in Urology (M.S. in Urology) is the major degree that an aspiring student needs to complete to become a Urologist.

What is the average Step 1 for urology residency? ›

The average Step 1 score was 242.5 (SD 13.7). Of 82 applicants, 57 (69.5%) reported a Step 2 CK score with an average of 251.8 (SD 11.8).

Is urology competitive in US? ›

As a surgical specialty, urology is quite competitive and continues to attract some of the best and brightest medical students. There are a total of about 90 programs and 220 residency positions in urology filled through the match each year.

Where do urologists make the most money? ›

Factors That Play Into a Urologist's Salary

The states the offer the most benefits, compensation, and career opportunities for urologists are Alaska, North Dakota, and Minnesota. Cities with the highest salaries for urologists are Grand Forks, North Dakota; Edmonds, Washington; and Denver.

Why is burnout in urology so high? ›

The factors that most often correlated with burnout (from most to least important) were identified as administrative workload, volume of work, lack of institutional resources or management support, lack of pension, patient expectations, on-call responsibilities, and salary.

What is the burnout rate for urologists? ›

Also, when we look at it by age, those experiencing burnout under 45 years old have increased from 38% to 45%, and those 45 to 54 years old, from 43% to almost 45%. So, we see that our younger urologists, for those in their early to mid-career, are experiencing burnout, and it's getting worse since 2016.

Do men prefer male urologists? ›

Many male patients express gender bias regarding their preference for urologist. However, professional skills of the clinician are considered to be more important factors when it comes to actually making a choice.

What percent of urologists are female? ›

While we're looking at numbers, consider AUA's most recent Annual Census from 2021, formally titled “The State of the Urology Workforce and Practice in the United States.” In the research, 13,790 urologists were identified as “practicing urologists.” Females were counted at 10.9 percent—a major gap.

Is urology a male dominated field? ›

In fact, women outnumber males in Gynaecology, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery, whereas males prefer Plastic Surgery, Orthopaedics, and Urology.

What is the most stressful physician? ›

Emergency medicine physicians have the highest rates of burnout among all physician specialties, according to a Medscape's 2022 Physician Burnout and Depression report.

Can a urologist be wrong? ›

Medical malpractice can take place in any area of medicine, including urology. Mistakes, negligence, and errors related to urological problems and conditions can result in life-threatening conditions. In some cases, urologic malpractice can have devastating consequences that change a person's standard of living.

How old should you be to go to urologist? ›

“To take charge of your prostate, urinary and sexual health — not just to protect you from prostate cancer — I recommend every man start seeing a urologist regularly at age 40,” says urologist Eric Klein, MD.

What is the color of urology? ›


Normal urine color is usually clear or pale yellow. Dark yellow urine can be normal, but it might mean you need more fluids. Amber or honey colored urine means you aren't drinking enough water.

What is the most common symptom of urological trauma? ›

  • Pain in and around your pelvis.
  • Pain in your back or side.
  • Bruising in your back or side.
  • Blood in urine or discharge.
  • A hard time urinating.
  • A hard time emptying the bladder.
  • A weak or no urine stream.
  • Dehydration.

What is a female urologist called? ›

A urogynecologist diagnoses and treats various conditions of a woman's pelvic organs, including incontinence, pelvic prolapse and pelvic floor disorders. A urogynecologist treats only women, while a urologist may treat men and women.

How does a urologist check your sperm? ›

First, doctors will request a semen analysis – a test to look at your sperm. You ejaculate into a cup, and your sperm will be analyzed under a microscope. To get the best results, do not ejaculate for two to five days before your visit.

Does urology do sperm count? ›

The best way to improve sperm count for successful fertility is to see your urologist. Your urologist will allow you to receive a proper diagnosis, better understand how your hormones play a part in your sperm production, and will give you a semen analysis to find out what's going on.

Can you go to a urologist on your period? ›

Yes, it's totally okay to get a pelvic exam when you're on your period. But most nurses and doctors would rather do your pelvic exam on a non-period day when you're not bleeding, or at least not bleeding heavily. That's because menstrual fluid (aka period blood) can affect the results of some lab tests.

Can a female doctor check a man's prostate? ›

Of course. My very beautiful female doctor examined my prostate. She said it was fine.

What will a urologist do on first visit male? ›

The doctor will perform a male genitourinary exam during your first appointment. That is a complete examination of the urinary tract region. The physician will perform a genital exam and a digital rectal exam to explore the prostate. The urologist may evaluate other areas as well.

What does a urologist do on your first visit? ›

What will happen during the exam? The doctor will perform a male genitourinary exam during your first appointment. That is a complete examination of the urinary tract region. The physician will perform a genital exam and a digital rectal exam to explore the prostate.

What is the most commonly ordered test in urology? ›

Urinalysis. A urinalysis is the most common urine test and is used to test for bacteria, foreign materials, and blood cells. This test can also help to determine urinary tract infections, diabetes, and early stages of diseases.

What does a urologist do to check your bladder? ›

During a cystoscopy, the urologist will examine the lining of the urethra and bladder and may insert small instruments through the cystoscope to treat problems in the urethra and bladder or perform a biopsy. During a cystoscopy, a cystoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder.

How does a urologist test your bladder? ›

Video urodynamic tests use x-rays link or ultrasound to take pictures and videos of your bladder while it fills and empties. A trained technician may use a catheter to fill your bladder with contrast or dye for a better picture.

How much does a cystoscopy cost? ›

On MDsave, the cost of a Cystoscopy ranges from $865 to $1836.

Can you go to the urologist on your period? ›

Yes, it's totally okay to get a pelvic exam when you're on your period. But most nurses and doctors would rather do your pelvic exam on a non-period day when you're not bleeding, or at least not bleeding heavily. That's because menstrual fluid (aka period blood) can affect the results of some lab tests.

Do they put you to sleep for a cystoscopy? ›

A rigid cystoscopy is carried out under general anaesthetic (where you're asleep) or a spinal anaesthetic (which numbs the lower half of your body), so you will not have any pain while it's carried out. It's normal to have some discomfort when peeing after a cystoscopy, but this should pass in a few days.

What are 4 types of tests done on urine? ›

Red blood cell urine test. Glucose urine test. Protein urine test. Urine pH level test.

What organs does a urologist check? ›

What is a urologist?
  • Bladder.
  • Kidneys.
  • Ureters.
  • Urethra.
Sep 28, 2021

What are the 3 types of urine testing? ›

For a urinalysis, your urine sample is evaluated in three ways: visual exam, dipstick test and microscopic exam.

Is it normal to pee every 2 hours? ›

What's normal and how many times is too frequent to urinate? Most people pee about seven to eight times per day, on average. If you feel the need to pee much more than that, or if you're getting up every hour or 30 minutes to go, you might be frequently urinating.

How painful is a cystoscopy for a man? ›

Does it hurt? People often worry that a cystoscopy will be painful, but it does not usually hurt. Tell your doctor or nurse if you feel any pain during it. It can be a bit uncomfortable and you may feel like you need to pee during the procedure, but this will only last a few minutes.

How do you stay calm during a cystoscopy? ›

Meditation is one tool that can help with the pain or anxiety of a cystoscopy. With practice, you can learn to calm the mind and center yourself while the procedure is being performed. Some find breathing exercises tremendously helpful. Some listen to music or focus their attention on watching the monitor.

What is the gold standard test for incontinence? ›

Urodynamic study is the gold standard test of bladder function. It gives information about bladder function in the same way that an echocardiogram gives information about cardiac function.

How long does a cystoscopy take? ›

A flexible cystoscopy usually takes about 5 minutes. They may squeeze some local anaesthetic jelly into your urethra to help prevent infection and reduce discomfort. Your doctor will pass the cystoscope into your urethra.


1. Pathways to Urology Training in the United Kingdom
(Surgery Interest Group of Africa)
2. Advanced Practice Providers: Why Urology?
3. Becoming a Urologist - Dr. Nicole Szell
(Advanced Urology Institute)
4. Simulation training in urology - Video abstract [ID 198941]
(Dove Medical Press)
5. Urology Surgery Training Simulator | Episode 4 - Sim Series
(AKU's Centre for Innovation in Medical Education)
6. Dr. John Selph
(UAB Medicine)


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